1. Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
2. Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from:
3. The onset of schizophrenia is typically associated with early:
4. Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce:
5. The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder.
1. Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching her to see how long it takes her to grow another one. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from:
2. Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing:
The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops:
Rapidly in response to a stressful life situation
4. Schizophrenia victims’ difficulty with focusing attention is most likely to be related to a smaller-than-normal:
5. Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for:
1. Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from:
a mood disorder
2. In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
3. The early loss of a parent due to death or separation increases later vulnerability to:
4. An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with:
a manic episode
5. Internal, stable, and global explanations of one’s own failures are indicative of:
1. Because it is so pervasive, ________ is often considered “the common cold” of psychological disorders.
2. Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman’s behavior is most indicative of:
3. Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the:
left frontal lobe
4. The social-cognitive perspective has linked the experience of depression to:
5. Amanda’s therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist’s suggestion best illustrates a:
social cognitive perspective
Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from:
generalized anxiety disorder
2. The avoidance of situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes is most characteristic of:
3. Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of:
post traumatic stress disorder
4. Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist’s suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.
5. A sudden loss of memory is one of the symptoms of:
a dissociative disorder
6. Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates:
anti-social personality disorder
1. At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:
a medical model
2. Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor’s emphasis best illustrates:
a biopsychosocial approach
3. A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the:
4. The DSM-IV does not:
a. include a classification of personality disorders.
b. explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
c. include a very broad range of psychological disorders.
d. provide reliable guidelines for diagnosing psychological disorders.
5. The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of:
1. Psychiatrists and psychologists would be likely to identify agoraphobia as a psychological disorder because it is:
2. Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of:
3. An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:
4. After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as “a passive, dependent type” and “frightened of his own aggressive impulses.” This study best illustrated the:
biasing power of diagnostic labels
5. Which of the following is currently the most prevalent psychological disorder in the United States?
1. A “lie scale” that assesses the extent to which a person is faking to make a good impression is included in the:
2. The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of:
the trait perspective
3. Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:
4. Researchers attempt to understand personality using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of:
5. After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates:
6. Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates:
7. Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate:
self serving bias
1. Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
2. One of the Big Five personality factors is:
3. During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that “you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends.” Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:
the Barnum effect
4. Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates:
5. Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates:
the external locus of control
6. Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusions best illustrate:
a pessimistic artibutional style
7. When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates:
the spotlight effect
1. Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by:
touch and massage
2. At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:
3. Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:
4. Over the last century, Western parents have placed ________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.
5. Compared with males, females are more likely to base their sense of personal identity on their:
6. The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role is called:
7. Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender:
1. The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents’ child-rearing practices on children’s personality has been most characteristic of:
2. Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. In order to avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens’ smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of:
smoking preferences on friendships choices
3. By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of:
4. The dramatic increase in Americans’ premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by:
5. Defining one’s identity in terms of one’s extended family or work group is most closely associated with:
6. A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.
7.The expectations that men initiate dates and that women choose wedding gifts best illustrate aspects of:
8. Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by:
gender schema theory
1. Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
2. After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:
3. Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
a PET scan
4. The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is the:
5. Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
6. The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as:
7. Due to an automobile accident, Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca’s area. Jenny is most likely to experience:
8. The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
1. Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone’s skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?
2. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
3. Natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control are called:
4. Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):
5. In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
6. The endocrine system consists of:
7. Which of the following chemical messengers is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
1. An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
away from; toward
2. The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with:
3. Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
4. A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):
5. The peripheral nervous system consists of:
sensory and motor neurons
6. The autonomic nervous system most directly controls:
7. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.
1. After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates:
the hindsight bias
2. When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that orange juice consumption triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne’s reaction best illustrates:
3. Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey’s prediction regarding anger management exemplifies:
4. Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?
5. A negative correlation between people’s physical health and their marital happiness would indicate that:
higher levels of martial happiness are associated with lower levels of physical health
6. Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
correlation does not prove causation
7. Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
8. In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:
9. In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:
10. In order to assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of:
level of sexual stimulation
1. Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because “the questions required only common sense.” However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:
2. Psychological theories:
a. organize scientific observations.
b. explain observed facts.
c. generate hypotheses.
d. involve all of these activities.
3. Which research method runs the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?
the case study
4. Every twenty-fifth person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine’s contents. The researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as:
5. Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are:
6. A correlation of +0.70 between children’s physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that:
Higher levels of popularity among one’s peers is associated with greater physical height in children
7. A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to:
8. In order to test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of:
9. Researchers control factors that might influence a dependent variable by means of:
10. In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage were assigned to the ________ group.
11. In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the:
1. An organism’s complete set of genetic instructions is called:
2. Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are:
More similar in their risk of developing alzeimer’s disease and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable
3. Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.
4. In emphasizing that heredity’s effects on behavior depend on a person’s home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of:
nature- nurture interactions
5. Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?
6. The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of:
7. It has been suggested that men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates:
an evolutionary perspective
1.Studies of the relative impact of nature and nurture on human differences in aggressiveness best illustrate the research efforts of:
2. Chromosomes are composed of:
deoxyribonucleic acid. (DNA)
3.Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are:
fraternal twins who were raised apart
4. Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.
5. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute a love of one’s own children to:
6. Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by:
7. Critics of evolutionary psychology are particularly likely to emphasize that gender differences in mate preferences are byproducts of:
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reasctons are triggered by the:
Sympathetic nervous system
1. By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.
2. If you mimic another person’s facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of the:
3. Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates the:
4. After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:
feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
5. People ________ the long-term emotional impact of sustaining a paralyzing physical injury and they ________ the long-term emotional impact of acquiring wealth.
6. Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the:
relative deprivation principle.
1. Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:
concept of conservation.
2. A child’s realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:
a theory of mind
3. The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as:
4. Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist’s waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother’s side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of:
5. “I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
1. After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of:
2. During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a:
sense of object permanence.
3. Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ states of mind is most characteristic of:
4. Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:
5. Compared to the children with authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are:
more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence.
1. Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates:
the fundamental attribution error.
2. Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that:
actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.
3. When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
4. After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.
5. Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of:
role-playing on attitude change.
1. In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride’s family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of:
normative social influence.
2. Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of:
3. Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates:
4. When a group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates:
5. When pressured to conform, people may do the opposite of what is expected in order to increase their sense of: